Business Review


After the Prophet’s death, difficult internal problems arose and they needed quick answers. Muslims were killing one another in the struggle for the Caliphate between ‘Ali and Mu’awiyah, then between the Umawis and the ‘Abbasis, the death of Hasan and Husayn, the massacre of the umawise, the withdrawal of the Khawarji from a community which they regarded as hopelessly involved in sin, the breach between Sunnis and Shi’is were all crises which vigorously tested the Muslims’ understanding of the word of God.


Islam, Quran, Theology



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Published Online

February 22, 2021



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