Business Review


This study analyses the impact of Political Instability (PI) on economic growth. PI is referred as the frequent regime or government changes in a country. PI affects economic growth due to inconsistent and uncertain government policies regarding investment and trade, tax system, government spending and fiscal balance, debt structure, monetary policy, exchange rates and inflation. PI coupled with these factors affects internal and external investments and ultimately future economic growth rates. Employing data from Pakistan for the period of 1984-2018, a country with a long history of various episodes of political instability under various democratic and non-democratic regimes, this study finds evidence that PI leads to significantly lower economic growth. After accounting for the effect of political institutions as well as the impact of both internal and external conflicts, we find that the negative effect that PI has on economic growth has not been abated significantly. Our research contributes to a better understanding of the negative impact of political instability on the economy.


Political instability, Economic development, Government stability, Corruption, Law and order, Democratic accountability



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Published Online

February 29, 2024



Publication Stage

Online First


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.