Business Review


This paper investigates the influence of emotional confidence and brand association on brand loyalty and whether there is a statistically significant difference in the brand loyalty of consumers having low or high emotional confidence. Data was collected outside fast food restaurants across Karachi using systematic sampling. Every fourth person exiting the restaurant was approached to fill a questionnaire. The data was analyzed using structural equation modelling. The results suggest that both brand association and emotional confidence have a statistically significant influence on brand loyalty. The variance explained in brand loyalty was higher when emotional confidence was included in the model. The result of the independent sample t-test suggests that there is a statistically significant difference between consumers having low and high emotional confidence in terms of their brand loyalty. Consumers with higher emotional confidence showed higher brand loyalty.


Brand loyalty, Brand association, Emotional confidence, Emotional attachment



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Published Online

December 09, 2020



Publication Stage



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