Business Review


The study examines task evaluation techniques; task outcomes and group structure composition in counteracting social loafing. The approach espoused in this paper is to assess the conventional literature that provides strong support for existence of social loafing phenomenon in groups and to predict counteracting from aforementioned variables.Based on latest literature innovative ways for combating social loafing are discussed. Results provide conclusive support that enhancing evaluation method, task outcomes and group structure were associated with reduced occurrence of social loafing. At group level increased conjunctive task and reward interdependence, heterogeneity and peer evaluation increase social loafing while increase in task meaningfulness, content, intensity, homogeneity, disjunctive and self evaluation reduce social loafing. The paper provides practical implications that enhancing task evaluation techniques, outcomes and group structure reduce social loafing and ultimately increase organizational performance.The study is unique as no one has focused the phenomenon of social loafing in Pakistan, thus it also contribute knowledge to literature.


Social loafing, Evaluation method, Task outcome, Group structure, Manufacturing industry



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Published Online

April 07, 2021



Publication Stage



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