Center for Executive Education (CEE)


Post Graduate Diploma in Project Management


Dr. Rameez Khalid

Project Type

PGD Project Report

Executive Summary

Electric Power Systems is among the largest consumer markets in the world. Electricity is generated in power plants and transmitted to load centers through a complex network of transmission systems and distribution to end-users through a large distribution network. The generated electricity must always be equal to the demand otherwise there will be a shortfall forcing electric utility companies to resort to load shedding and load management in order to keep the demand equal to the available power. The huge and complex electric power systems spanning thousands of kilometers consist of a large number of components. There is a probability that any of the components may fail. The component may fail due to overloading, severe weather conditions such as rain, thunderstorm, strong winds, damage to underground electric cables due to various reasons and vehicle accidents. Trees and birds are also responsible for short circuits. Some of the biggest blackouts in the history of power systems were caused when tree branches came in contact with electric power lines. Modern life is entirely dependent on electricity. Economies of countries are directly dependent on the availability of adequate electricity and a reliable power system that can supply electricity to customers without interruptions. Technology is constantly reshaping and remolding our lives and habits in such a way that the absence of electricity brings life to a virtual standstill. The distribution system accounts for over 90 percent of all reliability issues of customers. Unfortunately, power system planners have always focused on the capacity of the system. Reliability never got the importance it deserved because reliability added to the overall cost of the system. But nowadays reliability is gaining attention and utilities are being forced to maintain a certain degree of reliability by regulatory authorities. In Pakistan also, the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority requires all distribution companies to conform to a minimum level of performance standards. This report tries to discover the major issues resulting in frequent power outages in Karachi and recommends short-term and long-term solutions for reducing these outages.

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