BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

School of Economics and Social Sciences (SESS)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award

Spring 2021

Date of Submission



Zainab Tariq, Lecturer, Department of Social Sciences

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


This research aims towards understanding the familial attitudes surrounding educated, married women living in urban Karachi associated with the upper middle class, and who opted to work after their marriage. It examines how these attitudes have altered over the past twenty years, and how they may have accorded to the gradual increase in women’s labor force participation in Pakistan. The key theoretical frameworks and literature used for this study discuss the social roles theory, neo-patriarchy and the male dominant interpretations of religious texts which elaborate on how gender roles and the beliefs associated with them are fostered in our society which results in attitudinal barriers to be created towards women working. For this study, nine women who fell under the conditions described above were interviewed and their answers were sifted to understand the household attitudes which exist towards them working, and the impact it has on their participation in the workforce. The significance of this study is that it provides a comparative approach between two time periods by analyzing the responses of women working in the year 2000 and those who are currently working, to understand any shifts in attitudes which may have taken place that could have impacted their participation in the labor force. It was noted that even though familial attitudes have changed for the better in this twenty year time period, patriarchy and gender biased beliefs about women working have not been eradicated completely which still continue to hinder their participation in the workforce.



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