BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

School of Economics and Social Sciences (SESS)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award

Spring 2023

Date of Submission



Maria Haqqani, Visiting Faculty, Department of Social Sciences


Dr. Amer Iqbal Awan

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


This concurrent nested mixed-methods study aimed to gauge a link between different parenting styles and their effect on Pakistani students' academic anxiety levels. The research objectives focused on finding out whether parenting styles influence students' test anxiety levels and explored the role of certain sociocultural factors in Pakistani society. The research intended to discover how parenting styles in Pakistan influence students’ test anxiety levels and investigated the role of relevant sociocultural ideals in Pakistani society. In addition to this, the research ascertained if differences in anxiety levels are observed based on diverse educational systems. Participants included 158 people of Pakistani heritage, falling between the ages of 18 and 25. The methodology included both quantitative and qualitative elements, with data collected by virtue of questionnaires (the Parenting Practices Questionnaire and the Test Anxiety Questionnaire) statistically analyzed via SPSS and computed by running a linear regression. The results of the study reflected a strong and positive correlation between authoritarian parenting and test anxiety, a moderately positive correlation between authoritative parenting and test anxiety, a non-significant relationship between both permissive and test anxiety scores, and different educational systems and test anxiety scores. Simultaneously, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants and assessed by means of a thematic analysis that highlighted significant themes, including uncovering reasons for different parental expectations, various exhibitions of test anxiety, the effect of different educational systems on academic performance, the role of social comparison, the role of schools and educators, and several coping mechanisms employed by learners. Moreover, it uncovered critical sub-themes that added depth to the central relationship under investigation, including parental expectations informed either by parents' past experiences or sociocultural norms, and the positive or negative role of schools. The study proved useful in gaining a holistic, culturally relevant understanding of the link between parenting styles and test anxiety scores for Pakistani students. Furthermore, the findings can aid educational policymakers and parents in refining their educational strategies and techniques to enhance learners' educational processes.


ix, 107

The full text of this document is only accessible to authorized users.