BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

School of Economics and Social Sciences (SESS)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award

Spring 2021

Date of Submission



Aliya Iqbal Naqvi, Visiting Faculty, Department of Social Sciences

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


The partition of the subcontinent in 1947 not only divided the land and resources but also had a huge impact on the cultural heritage of the Indian civilization. Pakistan claimed itself to be an ideological state and the think tank had to establish a separate identity from the Indians. Khayal, a vocal genre although was developed and nurtured under the Muslim rulers in the subcontinent but it roots back to the Vedic traditions of India. The paper intends to investigate the reasons behind the gradual decline of khayal gayaki in Pakistan. This is done firstly by going through the history of the development of the genre and the basic technicalities which are part of the identity of the genre and then the decline is talked about. South Asian history becomes very important in this particular subject as it gives a political context and the Hindu Muslim dynamic in this region and art form helps in solving a few puzzles. The decline is studied through the post-colonial lens and different reasons such as globalization and role of Islamic state are discussed in detail. In the later half of this document, the current situation of the genre in Pakistan is analyzed and it is compared to the mid or late 20th century. While studying the decline of this particular genre, an obvious comparison with India emerges on various occasions and the paper takes that into account. However, the attitude of the artists, the lineage issues and the skill level is also discussed in detail which allows the reader to view things from multiple perspectives.



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