Master of Business Administration

Faculty / School

Faculty of Business Administration (FBA)


Dr. Shahid Mir

Project Coordinator (Internal)

Dr. Nasir Afghan, Asad Ilyas, Salma Mirza

Project Coordinator (External)

Farid Zafar, Shaikh Waqar, Naveeda Mehmood, Aamir Kazmi


Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL)

Committee Member 1

Dr. Shahid Mir, Institute of Business Administration, Karachi

Project Type

MBA Research Project

Abstract / Summary

Client Organization Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) Project Team Faiza Karim Maryem Momin Naqvi Madiha Ashraf Bilal Shah Vinod Dhirani Project Advisor Dr. Shahid Mir Project Coordinator Ms. Salma Mirza   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank Almighty Allah for HIS grace and the courage HE provided us that allowed us to do justice with this report and its topic. We’re thankful to our parents for bearing with our hectic schedules and always being a marvelous support. Always there to guide us, protect us. The moral support our parents have provided us with is irreplaceable Our sincere thanks to Ms Salma Mirza for her kindness, affection and the knowledge that she imparted upon us; enabling us to confidently take up this task. We’re thankful that she provided us with an opportunity to explore the practical side of Job Rotation and Dual Ladder Practices in Pakistan. Thank you for being such a supportive course instructor, mentor and an excellent source of information whenever needed. Without your guidance and timely feedback, this report could not have been materialized. Also, we would like to thank representatives of our client organization, Mr. Farid Zafar, Mr. Shaikh Waqar, Ms. Naveeda Mehmood and Mr. Aamir Kazmi, who provided us with all the support and necessary information required for the successful completion of this project. We would also like to thank all the Human resource Representative of various organizations, which were part of our research sample, for their facilitation, cooperation & time and for helping us in understanding their working procedures and policies, answering our queries with patience and giving different suggestions on preparation of implementation plans. Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7 1.0 BACKGROUND 10 1.1 Client Background 11 1.2 Problem Statement 11 1.3 Project Objectives 13 1.3.1 Job Rotation 13 1.3.2 Technical Ladder 14 2.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 15 2.1 Research Design 16 2.1.1 Research Methodology 16 2.1.2 In-depth Interviews 16 2.1.3 Implementation Plan for PPL 17 2.2 Information Needs 17 2.3 Type of Study 18 2.4 Significance of Study 19 2.5 Limitations of Study 19 3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 20 3.1 Career Planning .21 3.2 Job Rotation .24 3.3 Job Transfer and Internal Hiring 26 3.4 Analysis of Problem Statement 28 4.0 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 29 4.1 Career Ladder 30 4.2 Job Rotation 31 5.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 32 5.1 Target Respondents 33 5.2 Data Gathering/Field Work 34 5.3 Data Processing and Analysis 34 5.4 Part A: Organizational Human Resource Assessment 36 5.4.1 PPL 36 5.4.2 ICI 38 5.4.3 Engro 39 5.4.4 Chevron 39 5.4.5 SSGCL 40 5.4.6 BP 41 5.4.7 Unilever Pakistan 42 5.4.8 Shell Pakistan 44 5.4.9 PARCO 45 5.4.10 MOL 46 5.4.11 Mari Gas 47 Analysis 48 5.5 Part B: Career Ladder 51 5.5.1 PPL 51 5.5.2 ICI 54 5.5.3 Engro 57 5.5.4 Chevron 58 5.5.5 SSGCL 60 5.5.6 BP 63 5.5.7 Unilever Pakistan 65 5.5.8 Shell Pakistan 67 5.5.9 PARCO 69 5.5.10 MOL 72 5.5.11 Mari Gas 74 Analytical Review & Conclusion 79 5.6 Part C: Job Rotation 83 5.6.1 PPL 83 5.6.2 ICI 84 5.6.3 Engro 89 5.6.4 Chevron 91 5.6.5 SSGCL 92 5.6.6 BP 93 5.6.7 Unilever Pakistan 95 5.6.8 Shell Pakistan 98 5.6.9 PARCO 102 5.6.10 MOL 105 5.6.11 Mari Gas 107 Analytical Review & Conclusion 112 6.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 115 6.1 Job Rotation Framework 116 6.2 Positioning of PPL - Job Rotation 117 6.3 Positioning of PPL - Job Transfer 119 6.4 Conclusions 120 6.5 Recommendations 121 6.5.1 Career Ladder 121 6.5.2 Job Rotation 121 6.5.3 Job Transfer 122 7.0 RECOMMENDED POLICY FOR JOB ROTATION 123 7.1 Job Rotation Policy for MPT Staff .124 7.2 MPT Staff Job Rotation Evaluation Form .128 8.0 RECOMMENDED POLICY FOR JOB TRANSFER 134 8.1 Job Transfer Policy for MPT Staff .135 8.2 MPT Staff Internal Transfer Request Form .138 APPENDIX 140 Project Summary .141 Bibliography .142 Questionnaire .143   List of Tables Organizational Human Resource Requirement 36 Table 5-1 PPL 36 Table 5-2 ICI 38 Table 5-3 Engro 39 Table 5-4 Chevron 40 Table 5-5 SSGCL 41 Table 5-6 BP 42 Table 5-7 Unilever Pakistan 43 Table 5-8 Shell Pakistan 44 Table 5-9 PARCO 45 Table 5-10 MOL 46 Table 5-11 Mari Gas 47 Career Ladder 51 Table 5-12 PPL 51 Table 5-13 ICI 54 Table 5-14 Engro 57 Table 5-15 Chevron 58 Table 5-16 SSGCL 60 Table 5-17 BP 63 Table 5-18 Unilever Pakistan 65 Table 5-19 Shell Pakistan 67 Table 5-20 PARCO 69 Table 5-21 MOL 72 Table 5-22 Mari Gas 74 Job Rotation 83 Table 5-23 PPL 83 Table 5-24 ICI 84 Table 5-25 Engro 89 Table 5-26 Chevron 91 Table 5-27 SSGCL 92 Table 5-28 BP 93 Table 5-29 Unilever Pakistan 95 Table 5-30 Shell Pakistan 98 Table 5-31 PARCO 102 Table 5-32 MOL 105 Table 5-33 Mari Gas 107   List of Figures Figure 2-1 Information Needs 18 Figure 4-1 Conceptual Framework for Career Ladder 30 Figure 4-2 Conceptual Framework for Job Rotation 31 Figure 5-1 Methodology for Analysis of Findings 35 Figure 5-2 Industry Classification of Targeted Companies 48 Figure 5-3 Classification w.r.t Functional Orientation 49 Figure 5-4 Classification w.r.t Total Size of Workforce 50 Figure 5-5 Career Ladder Practices – Common Trend at Targeted Companies 76 Figure 5-6 Criteria for Promotion 77 Figure 5-7 Internal Hiring Procedures 78 Figure 5-8 Job Rotation – Policy Framework for Trainees & Mid-level Employees 108 Figure 5-9 Scope of Job Rotation at Targeted Companies 109 Figure 5-10 Scope of Job Transfer at Targeted Companies 110 Figure 5-11 Need for Job Rotation 111 Figure 6-1 Framework for Job Rotation – Derived from Data Findings & Analysis 116   Executive Summary This project was based on a comprehensive study that was meant to determine the scope of Job Rotation and Dual Ladder Practices in Pakistan in order to address the concerns of our client organization, Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL), which is pioneer of the natural gas industry and has been a frontline player in the energy sector since 1950s. As a major supplier of natural gas, PPL contributes some 25 percent of the country’s total natural gas supplies besides producing crude oil, Natural Gas Liquid and Liquefied Petroleum Gas. The company considers its people as an important resource that is critical to corporate success. It, therefore, pays serious attention to their training and development. The company encourages its younger employees to assume responsibilities and take part in decision making to prepare them for future leadership roles. Hence, there is continuous focus on developing workplace learning. An important approach being considered by the company is “Job Rotation”, which is used as a proactive means of enhancing the value of work experience for the goals of training and development. However, an important problem under consideration was to identify the scope of assigning management responsibility to technical staff. Organizations employing many professional specialists and engineers face the dilemma of establishing a reward system that is not just stimulating to the professional but is also productive for the organization. HR Strategists at PPL were facing a similar situation; therefore, they decided to initiate this project in order to gauge the feasibility of implementing dual ladders within organization and to determine the viability of Job Rotation Model for the company. Their aim is to ensure independence in career advancement of managerial and technical staff. In order to address the concerns of client organization, comprehensive study was held (a) to collect information regarding the dual ladder practices, where applicable (b) to carry out need assessment that leads to the initiation of job rotation process and (b) to study that how does this process benefit the company and how far does it prove effective in enhancing the skill and professional development of employees. Principal organizations in the sample, included SSGCL, OMV, MGCL, BP, Eni, ENGRO, BHP, ICI, MOL, UNILEVER, SHELL and CALTEX, while, target respondents at each organization included HR managers and/or policy makers. The data collected during the research was organized to determine the current and target positioning of PPL. Recommendations were made, thereafter, in consideration with the requirements of the client organization. Key findings of the research indicated that there is no evidence of dual ladder practices at organizations that formed our sample. Almost all companies practiced Managerial Ladder only. This is largely because corporations in Pakistan are not really familiar with the concept of dual ladder planning. For years, engineers & technical specialists have been trained to take on management and leadership positions; therefore, implementing a separate ladder for technical staff has never been expressed as an explicit need. As long as Job Rotation is concerned, almost all companies had formal rotation plans for their trainees. Middle-level employees, on the other hand, were subject to lesser rotations because as an employee moves up the ladder, the depth of work and depth of responsibility increases, therefore, employee is expected to spend longer time in a particular department and deliver results in a particular role. Hence, employees were placed in actual positions and against actual key performance indicators. Moreover, if he had joined the company as trainee then he had already been through a lot of rotations to get the required exposure to the organization and to decide on his career path. Hence, further rotations up the ladder were need-based or project-oriented. Transfers for middle level employees, however, are higher in order to sustain the motivation levels of middle level employee and to reduce boredom. Keeping in consideration the key findings of our research, we recommended the client organization to continue with the practice of single Managerial ladder as there are no such practices of maintaining separate ladders for technical and non-technical staff, which differ in their formal structures. With respect to job rotation to Job Rotation, we recommend field rotations for engineers and cross-functional rotations for support staff. PPL operates in six fields and scope of operations differ in each field, therefore, company could plan to rotate its quality technical resource within these fields over 15 years of their career until they become eligible for the position of Chief Engineer. The purpose would be to increase their worth, knowledge and experience. Moreover, rotation of non-technical employees within different functions of their departments e.g. rotation between treasury, taxation and reporting functions in Finance could enrich their knowledge and growth prospects within the company. Finally, we also recommend the company to introduce On Job posting (OJP) policy in order to formalize the process of internal hiring and job transfers. This may help the company to gather a pool of all the eligible candidates internally and some of them may be high potential candidates, who have demonstrated good performance in the past. The implementation of this policy at PPL, however, may be difficult due to government intervention. An alternative policy, in that case, could be circulation of internal memos and asking for nominations of eligible candidates. Overall, the project has been a great learning experience and contributed significantly to the practical know-how of all the individuals, who were involved in this project, directly or indirectly. This project has serious strategic implications in terms of human resource management at one of the largest oil exploration and production companies in Pakistan i.e. PPL. Moreover, this study can also serve as syndicated study for any subsequent work that might take place in this area. Researchers willing to investigate new or existing dynamics of job rotation or dual ladder planning can look up to this research as point of reference, as it summarizes best practices of 11 benchmark companies in Pakistan.

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