All Theses and Dissertations


Master of Science in Economics

Faculty / School

School of Economics and Social Sciences (SESS)


Department of Economics

Date of Award

Spring 2021


Dr. Qaiser Munir

Committee Member 1

Dr. Qaiser Munir, Institute of Business Administration, Karachi

Project Type


Access Type

Restricted Access


viii, 31


This paper studies the existence of EKC theory in Pakistan in a nonlinear framework, by implementing novel endogenous threshold autoregressive (TAR) models suggested by Hansen (2000) for approximation and interpretation. The role of GDP per capita, energy consumption per capita, ratio of exports and imports to GDP(%) and net ODA received (% of GNI) in influencing the ecological footprint of production and consumption of Pakistan is analyzed in the context of EKC theory for the period 1965 to 2017. Following (Darné, 2015) the research determine the nonlinear effects in the association among Economic growth and Ecological footprint from both production and consumption based approach. The results of estimated production and consumption based threshold regression model (TAR) indicate 713.65 USD as the threshold per capita income. Moreover, in the first regime, there are twenty-four values which are not more than the threshold value. While in the second regime there are twenty-nine values, which are greater than threshold value. The paper also established Pakistan has come to a turning point in the year 1988 and pursued by a diminishing pattern in environmental deterioration. In addition, the empirical findings confirm the presence of EKC theory in Pakistan.

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