BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

Faculty of Business Administration (FBA)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award


Date of Submission



Dr. Gulnaz Anjum, Associate Professor, Department of Social Sciences and Liberal Arts

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching approaches used for dyslexic students by remedial teachers in Pakistan, its effectiveness, and the different ways the approaches were modified to suit the students’ needs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 8 remedial teachers: two teachers from Institute of Behavioral Psychology (IBP), three from Center for Inclusive Care (CIC), two from READyslexics (READ) and two independent teachers. An Interpretive Phenomenological method was used for analysis of the experiences of teachers using different teaching approaches for dyslexic students. Results yielded six major themes: Assessment process (Pre- and follow-up assessments), Common problems (slow progress and incongruence in teaching), Teaching techniques (the Orton-Gillingham approach, Sequential approach, Technology-assisted learning, Integrative approach, and Play Therapy), Role of family (Parental role and other family members), Environmental influences (Behavioral issues caused by external factors and ways to deal with them) and Prognosis. Based on the interview responses, the most popular approach used was the Orton-Gillingham approach, which incorporated multiple senses in the learning process, and was altered to meet the specific needs of a student. Technology-assisted learning was also used by teachers as a supplement for learning, along with the conventional mode of teaching. The behavioral issues exhibited by the students as reported by teachers, included shyness, fear of incompetence, stubbornness, feelings of worthlessness and low self-esteem due to the negative experiences at home and at school. Psycho-education of the parents, as suggested by the teachers at CIC, was found to be an important element in creating awareness in parents about their child’s learning difficulties. Directions for future research are also discussed to further investigate the teaching approaches that fit best in Pakistan’s socio-cultural context.


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