BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

Faculty of Business Administration (FBA)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award


Date of Submission



Dr. Faiza Mushtaq, Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences and Liberal Arts

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


This study considers Partition as a process and not a one-time event. This is because the movement of people did not cease after 1947—migrations continued to occur even after Partition was thought to be over. It specifically focuses on the experiences of five Muslim women who migrated from India to Pakistan after marrying Pakistani men. Since they revoked Indian citizenship after migration, this work analyses how women’s own conceptions of identity and belonging can change in such circumstances. Another important aspect is mobility—it is hampered as these women are treated as Pakistani citizens by Indian bureaucracies and vice versa. With a focus on oral histories, this study borrows from Partition historiography on women and violence. At the same time, it taps into Vazira Zamindar’s argument that bureaucratic violence is a form of Partition violence. The entity that perpetuates this violence—the masculine state—is analysed through sources other than oral histories, such as citizenship laws and recent memos released by Indian ministries for Pakistani migrants. The study argues that bureaucratic violence features as subtle and symbolic acts that occur at various instances, such as when women give up citizenship or travel to and from India to maintain kinship ties.



The full text of this document is only accessible to authorized users.