BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

Faculty of Business Administration (FBA)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award


Date of Submission



Shahana Rajani, Visiting Faculty, Department of Social Sciences

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


This paper aims to explore how Pakistan’s military justifies and legitimizes its counterterrorism operations through the use of visuality. It examines the army’s media management infrastructure and particularly focuses on its image building exercise which allows the army to capture the national narrative and accumulate a tremendous amount of power within the country. Furthermore, it argues that the way in which the military’s visuality represents the landscape of FATA and its inhabitants to justify operation Zarb-E-Azb by deploying imperialist visuality not only sustains the army’s hegemony but also allows for the perpetration of multiple forms of violences against the people inhabiting those areas. It then looks at how the army uses the narrative of securitisation to make itself relevant and insert itself into civil society. Lastly, this paper argues that the military constructs an imaginative geography in its representation of the figure of the soldier and the terrorist (or Pashtun) other; and that these constructions also largely hinge upon the representation of women as victims.



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