BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

School of Economics and Social Sciences (SESS)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award

Spring 2023

Date of Submission



Dr. Sahar Nadeem, Assistant Professor, Department of Economics

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


This study investigated the relationship between perceived economic hardship, economic abuse, and emotional abuse among married, salaried women in Pakistan. The central hypothesis was that economic hardship would have a positive relationship with economic and emotional abuse. The participants were 91 married, salaried women aged 18-35 years, all of whom had higher secondary education. The research employed a quantitative approach using an online survey. The sample size consisted of 100 participants. The survey utilized the Economic Hardship Questionnaire (EHQ) by Conger et al. for perceived economic hardship, the Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA) by Sullivan et al. for economic abuse, and the Emotional Abuse Questionnaire (EAQ) by Jacobson and Gottman for emotional abuse assessment. . A study of 91 salaried married women in Pakistan found no significant correlation between perceived economic hardship and economic or emotional abuse. However, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.464, p < 0.01) was observed between economic and emotional abuse. Multiple regression analyses, controlling demographic variables, did not significantly predict economic hardship based on these forms of abuse. These findings suggest that while economic hardship does not directly correlate with abuse, economic and emotional abuse often coexist, warranting further research.





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