BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

Faculty of Business Administration (FBA)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award


Date of Submission



Dr. Tiago Ferreira Lopes, Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences and Liberal Arts

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


This thesis explores the intricacies of various ideal and real, particularly, non-democratic regime types. The applicability of an authoritarian regime-type, in the case of Venezuela, is therefore discouraged due to the complexity of it being in the ‘gray area’ of hybrid regime. By taking a critical look at the regime classifications themselves, the questions regarding legitimacy, endurance, ideology, and durability begin to emerge. In the case of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez’s regime utilized democratic methods (elections, welfare programs) to seek both, legitimacy, and further consolidate regime power. Likewise, while Venezuela is facing several crises under President Maduro’s regime, the ideological dimensions, the electoral dominance, and fragmented opposition have helped the regime endure. Hence, studying the competitive measures undertaken by the regime gives us clues and implications for the question of survival in future.


iv, 60

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