BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

School of Economics and Social Sciences (SESS)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award

Spring 2023

Date of Submission



Dr. Muahammad Bilal Munshi, Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


Since its inception, Pakistan has perceived an existential threat from its external environment which has led it to adopt a primarily militaristic conceptualization of national security that was focused on protecting its territorial integrity. However, in the post-Cold War era, the global security environment has changed drastically and therefore a narrow conceptualization of security is insufficient for addressing the range of non-traditional threats and vulnerabilities that Pakistan is faced with. The country’s participation in the war on terror post 9/11 exacerbated its non-traditional vulnerabilities and as a result, the political and economic stability of the country suffered and its level of human welfare deteriorated significantly.

Within this context, the National Security Policy 2022-2026 provides a paradigm shift in how Pakistan conceptualizes its security interests in the 21st century. The policy marks Pakistan’s official recognition of the need for widening its security agenda and securitizing non-traditional threats to its national security. It also provides policy guidelines which highlight Pakistan’s strategic preferences for achieving its non-traditional security objectives.

Thus, this research project seeks to analyze Pakistan’s grand strategic adjustment with respect to how it has securitized non-traditional threats. It further delves into a detailed analysis of specific non-traditional threats that Pakistan has securitized and the subsequent foreign policy initiatives it is pursuing to address those threats to its national security.



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