BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

School of Economics and Social Sciences (SESS)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award

Spring 2023

Date of Submission



Dr. Ayesha Zia, Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences


Habiba Zaheer, Visiting Faculty, Department of Social Sciences

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Open Access


This study explored the influence of culture and perceived parental expectations and control on the development of self. In addition, it examined the resulting incongruence between the ideal and real-self leading to false-self behaviour and mental health deterioration. Carl Rogers' theoretical framework on self, served as the basis for this research, which used an interpretative phenomenological analytic technique. In-depth interviews lasting between 30 and 45 minutes were used to gather the data. Eight participants (four men and four women) who attended the university Institute of Business Administration (IBA) and lived in Karachi were chosen using a combination of volunteer and snowball sampling techniques. The study's findings identified several important themes. First, a common problem that caused internal conflict in young people was the discrepancy between personal and parental expectations. Second, The study's findings show that Pakistani parents have high expectations from their children and exercise excessive control over them, which frequently conflict with the wants and requirements of young adults. The generational gap and cultural norms and values makes it easier for parents to set unrealistic expectations, which makes the problems encountered by young adults even more difficult. Parents' conditional positive regard breeds a fear of rejection in their children, causing them to alter their behavior and put up a false-self behaviour when they are with their parents. Significant emotional discomfort and a reduced feeling of self-worth are caused by this lack of authenticity and higher incidence of lying.