BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

School of Economics and Social Sciences (SESS)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award

Spring 2023

Date of Submission



Soha Macktoom, Associate Director, Karachi Urban Lab


Dr. Laila Sohail Farooq, Assistant Professor and Chairperson - Social Sciences & Liberal Arts, Department of Social Sciences

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


Urban development in Pakistan is a topic explored most frequently. This is because the issue is becoming more and more pressing with time. As the population increases, the resources become more competitive. However, the problem does not only lie in the lack of resources, but also in the top-down approach of the state. As a result, the concept of alternative development was formed by John Friedmann (1992). He argues development is not just material, but rather more holistic. It should focus on increasing the political participation of marginalized community members and encourage self-help in order to make development more sustainable. This thesis uses his work as the theoretical framework to understand how poor communities, who face urban problems including land displacement, work with NGOs and CSOs to improve their living standards. The idea is to study the relationship between communities and NGOs/CSOs, and see how they come together in the backdrop of alternative development. The two organisations chosen are Technical Training and Resource Center (TTRC) and Karachi Bachao Tehreek (KBT). Both of them have extensive experience in working with community members, and further research will reveal the complex nature of the problems faced by these communities and the dynamics between various stakeholders.



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