BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

School of Economics and Social Sciences (SESS)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award

Spring 2023

Date of Submission



Dr. Muhammad Bilal Munshi, Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


The following research paper explores neoliberalism in Pakistan and investigates its impact on the country's political and economic landscape, irrespective of regime typology, by utilizing the two major tenets of neoliberalism, democracy and the free market, in an attempt to understand how neoliberal ideals and principles affect a state.

To achieve this, the research examines the functioning of democratic institutions and the economic environment in Pakistan. It delves into the historical context of frequent military interventions and their consequences, such as fragile democratic systems, insufficient accountability, poor governance, and a lengthy history of dictatorship. The paper also investigates factors that compromise democratic institutions, including internal disagreements between political parties, inadequate focus on the rule of law and human rights, and a lack of institutional competence in political parties. Additionally, it addresses the obstacles hindering the growth of democracy, such as widespread corruption, socioeconomic and political divisions, ethnic and sectarian tensions, and limited resources and support for civil society organizations.

Furthermore, the study examines the influence of neoliberal policies on Pakistan's economic environment. It explores the advantages, such as the rise of the private sector, market deregulation leading to increased foreign direct investment and job opportunities. However, it also uncovers disadvantages, including wealth concentration, weakened governmental institutions, corruption, and job losses during the privatization process. Market deregulation exacerbates economic disparity and contributes to the emergence of influential oligarchs with political power. The paper also highlights how neoliberal policies promote consumerism, raise consumer debt, and undermine worker rights. Finally, it examines the impact of these policies on Pakistan's foreign policy, leading to dependence on external powers and potential challenges to national sovereignty.

In summation, this research aims to analyze the impact of neoliberalism in Pakistan, transcending regime typology. By investigating the functioning of democratic institutions, economic policies, and their interconnectedness, the study provides valuable insights into the challenges faced by Pakistan and the need for alternative governing ideologies.



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