BS (Social Sciences & Liberal Arts)

Faculty / School

School of Economics and Social Sciences (SESS)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Date of Award

Spring 2022

Date of Submission



Rahma Muhammad Mian, Lecturer, Department of Social Sciences

Project Type

SSLA Culminating Experience

Access Type

Restricted Access


This paper analyses item songs in Bollywood and derives the themes that leads to the sexual objectification of women by focusing on the elements of dance moves of the item girl, the camera angles used to shoot the song, importance of light, costumes, lyrics, mise-en-scene and location. The visual analysis in this research was done through 15 Item Numbers during the past 3 decades from 1990 to 2021. As a crucial element of Hindi movies, item numbers have portrayed women as a commodity meant to satisfy the desire of men, enhanced by the used of obscene lyrics. Through conducting a detailed chronological and semiotic analysis with regards to the sexual objectification of women, this paper aims to understand the role that time has played in the development of item songs as well as the ways in which these item songs have contributed to the sexual objectification of women. The analyses makes use of the techniques involved in the development of an item song that differentiates it from other dances sequences and 5 songs out of the 15 were further analysed to understand the impact of common themes in item songs on the audience.



The full text of this document is only accessible to authorized users.