Master of Science in Economics

Faculty / School

Faculty of Business Administration (FBA)


Department of Economics

Date of Submission



Dr. Aneel Salman, Institute of Business Administration, Karachi

Project Type

MSECO Research Project

Access Type

Restricted Access


From policy makers to academics energy security is increasingly popular issue with no precise definition. Researchers across the globe find it highly context dependent with many dimensions. This study is an attempt to quantify the energy security of Pakistan relative to the regional countries India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, through Energy Supply Security Index (ESSI). A cross country analysis will help to understand the performance of Pakistan with economies in bordering region that almost has same resource endowments, regional risks and climate conditions. The ESSI for the period under review shows that India and Bangladesh become more vulnerable to energy supply shocks with passage of time. Sri Lanka is successfully able to decrease its high index values. While Pakistan remains at the same position throughout the decade (2004-2014) which shows policy gap in addressing the prevailing issues on energy sector. All countries have decreasing trend in energy intensity. Increasing trend in exposure to geopolitical risk, mostly accounts for the rising political instability in importing regions. Import dependency has increased in case of all countries except for Bangladesh, which is due to depletion of their indigenous fossil fuel reserve. Production to consumption gap has widen for India and Pakistan while shrinks in case of Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. On the basis of the results and past literature, the study recommends the steps for the improvement in the energy situation; • Diversification of energy resources from expensive fuels to cheaper fuels, • Improving energy efficiency through adaptation of new technologies, improving infrastructure and reducing the existing line losses and leakages, • To exploit the potential for renewable with in Pakistan. Moreover, the government should consider energy as a national issue and take all the stakeholders on board, identify different options, prioritized them on the basis of acceptance to all and start exploiting them.


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