Master of Business Administration Executive

Faculty / School

School of Business Studies (SBS)

Year of Award



Dr. Yasir Mansoor Kundi, Assistant Professor, Department of Management

Project Type

MBA Executive Research Project

Access Type

Restricted Access

Executive Summary

This report presents the findings of a research study conducted to examine the effects of “flexible working arrangements” hereafter referred to as FWA on employee job performance. While also assessing the effects of organizational identification, Job crafting, work life balance and psychological empowerment as mediators. The research particularly targets employees of process manufacturing industries of Pakistan. The study has been conducted with 329 employees working for process manufacturing industries in Pakistan. The research study proposes interesting outcomes in terms of the relationship between FWA and job performance. The hypotheses postulated were majorly unsupported. FWA did not positively relate to psychological empowerment, job crafting, or organizational identification and had a non-significant relationship with work-life balance. Psychological empowerment and job crafting were the only factors positively related to job performance, whereas organizational identification and work-life balance did not have significant effects. The mediation hypothesis was also not supported, indicating that the examined variables did not mediate the relationship between FWA and employee performance. These findings suggest a deeper understanding of other factors affecting this relationship and further future studies that could explain these results for this sample set. This research study also poses inherent limitations based on demographics, data set being cross sectional, cultural contrast, measurement sensitivity, the scope of work life balance considered for the research and finally the FWA considered for the study. The research results are based on these limitations and future research is proposed to explore further out of these constraints. Based on the outcome it is recommended to the industry to have FWA policies in place which are formed with careful consideration of the above-mentioned limitations and possibly based on the other mediating factors not explored in this research. Furthermore, it is also recommended that before implementing the FWA in place, an organization should have a necessary infrastructure to support such policy making. Once organizations are able to tailor-made FWA fit for their environment and organizational dynamics i.e. with accurate exploration of right mediating factors. FWA can enhance the employee job performance of an organization. Moreover, our study paves avenues for future research further diving deeper into the topic. Future research is suggested to be conducted with longitudinal studies, diverse layers of sample sets, other diverse domains of work life balance studied over different FWA.



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