Amin Ganny


Master of Business Administration Executive

Faculty / School

Faculty of Business Administration (FBA)

Year of Award


Project Type

MBA Executive Research Project

Access Type

Restricted Access

Executive Summary

Pakistan has 29 cement plants with a total installed capacity of 44 million tons. The shortage of natural gas and the increasing cost of oil and coal has adversely affected cement production. The cement manufacturers are looking at different opportunities to supplement their fuel requirements and bringing down their cost of production. One option for them is to use tire derived fuel (TDF), as fuel similar to the way used in other western countries. Cement used in construction, today, can be classified in two different categories: hydraulic and non-hydraulic. Cement Manufacturing requires three main and very basic raw materials: limestone, gypsum and energy. It is produced in four main steps Quarrying, Raw Material Preparation, Clinker and Milling. There are two different types of processes the Wet Process and the Dry Process. Tires are being increasingly used as fuel because of their energy released when burning up. Scrap tire burning in cement production should not be considered as recycling. It has been found that tires produce 25% times more heat energy than coal and that burning tires reduces Carbon Dioxide Emissions by 19.5%. Secondly it is better to use scrap tires for co-generation purposes than to landfill it. The EPA has developed their very own waste management strategy for USA in light of the how tires can be used as alternate fuels in the following order of preference: reduce, recycle, waste-to-energy and disposal in an appropriate facility. In the cement industry tires can be burned as whole or can be cut into pieces and then burned. One advantage of burning tires as fuels in the cement industry is that there is no need to remove the steel in the rubber as the cement process requires iron ore to be added. The steel in the tires is one of the alloys of iron and can be used as replacement in the cement kiln. This has resulted in completely new supply chain phenomena where new joint ventures are being seen to ensure timely delivery of scrap tires to cement kilns as co-incinerating fuel option.

Tyres have a very high heating value plus it can be stored for long periods of time and additional benefits of reclaiming steel before burning, makes a greater economical sense. It is much easier to transport scrap tyre rather than coal, since with coal you have to be careful that during transportation no moisture comes in contact with the coal as moisture reduces the heating capacity of Coal. TDF has a much consistent heating value while the heating value of coal differs from mine-to-mine and country-to-country. Secondly, while procuring coal, the composition of coal has to be kept in mind while procuring it, however, no such chemical tests and analysis have to be conducted before procuring scrap tyres.



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