Master of Business Administration Executive

Faculty / School

Faculty of Business Administration (FBA)

Year of Award


Project Type

MBA Executive Research Project

Access Type

Restricted Access

Executive Summary

Banks globally are facing challenges in measuring and assessing risk. Bank for international settlement (BIS) through Capital adequacy guidelines (MCR Basel), started off from credit risk as they thought that it is the only major risk a bank can face. They had to inculcate market risk too after some of the known cases of SOC GEN (biggest individual fraud in the history, based on over the counters - OTCs) and of BARING BANK. They catered some other risk like operational risk in Basel II guidelines along with enhanced checks on credit risk. State Bank of Pakistan successfully implemented these instructions Pakistan wide. However, banks faced a lot of problems in understanding Basel reforms and in arranging the SBP required paid up capital. They went on the verge of mergers and closures. However, most of the Banks were able to implement it in its real sense.



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