Master of Business Administration Executive
Faculty / School
Faculty of Business Administration (FBA)
Year of Award
MBA Executive Research Project
Eclucalion is the basic key of the development of a country and nobody can deny the importance of education as a surviving indicator for a nation. Quality and modern education is most essential for a nation to compete with modern world. In this modern era globalization has created many economic challenges and demanded mor skilled and expert human resource development, which can be possible only by access of quality education, so no nation can survive without quality or modern skilled education. Although educated man is also beneficial for the country but an educated woman is more beneficial for the social reforms and stable and sensible society formation. Female education is basic paramount to the nation’s prosperity and indicator of social welfare and economic stability of a country because an educated woman contributes to the creation of skilled technocrats, entrepreneurs and enables the nation to compete with modern and innovative world.
The problem of dropout of female students before completion of primary education in Pakistan is a critical and pondering issue for the policy makers. Although there are many reasons for girls dropping out of school finding out in many research. This research tries to explore the factors influencing the girl students drop out at primary level from the perspective of girls, parents, teachers and Head teachers of public primary schools of District Jamshoro Sindh. This study identifies the factors affecting the increasing dropout rate of girls by making a detailed review of available literature. A few of the studies in this context have been done outcome based on particular regions and cultures of the world.
The research design adopted by the researcher is a descriptive survey design and data was compiled and analyzed by using simple descriptive methods. The target population of the study is 98 Head teachers of 98 girls’ public primary schools of district Jamshoro, 328 female teachers and 5700 girl students. The interviews conducted from total 166 respondents i.e. 45 girl students,31 parents,59 teachers and 31 Head teachers of 36 randomly selected girls’ primary schools of district Jamshoro.
This research reveals that the poverty is the dominant factor affecting the girls dropout at primary level of district Jamshoro, poverty is a major and critical problem faced by parents of girl students especially of rural areas thus the rate of dropout in schools of rural areas is higher than schools of urban areas. The 60% parents, 61% girl students and 55% teachers and Head teachers responded that poverty is the main reason of dropout of girl students because parents cannot bear the expenses of copies, uniforms, school bags and pocket money of girl students. Due to poverty girls also engaged in different works for earning money for their parents i.e. work in fields, run the little shops, make rile, embroidery and other crafts etc. and forced to lea\-c the school.
I he sociocultural factors as like as early marriages, purdah system, caste system and fundamental beliefs of male dominant society are major barriers which hinder the girls to go school after the age of 9 years and complete the education. 18% parents. 17% girl students 16.5 % teachers stated that men of the family did not allow the girls to go to school after the age of 9 years and arranged early marriages of girl students. Third major factor which affected the girls' dropout rate at primary level from Government Girls schools of District Jamshoro Hyderabad region study reveals was lack of basic facilities and trained, committed and professional teachers .5.4% parents, 6.4% teachers and 3% students were responded that unavailability of basic facilities is the reason of girl's dropout.
This research recommended that girl's dropout rate can be decreased by overcoming the problems of poverty and unemployment if small industrial units and trade centers for local hand crafts may established at union council and Taluka headquarters and farmers must paid appropriate wages for their crops and may got seeds and fertilizers on cheap rates, in spite this for the awareness of parents and community to the importance of female education, awareness campaigns can be started through print, electronic and social media and teachers and educational managers should meet and motivate parents for regularity and retention in school of their daughters.
To overcome the problem of girl's dropout at primary level government school buildings must be constructed as per modem emerging trends with adequate numbers of classrooms, libraries with interesting story books, play areas, adequate furniture, wash rooms with sanitation and gender sensitive facilities, pure drinking water and electricity and alternate electricity generating resources.
The mixed schools having both gender enrollment and private schools of district are excluded from research. The research data collection process was difficult because most of the Head Mistresses were not maintained the record of dropped out girls in
appropriate manner and some of them avoided providing record. The study of girls' primary schools of four Taluka of District Jamshoro located in remote areas. Travelling from one school to another school was difficult and time consuming, due to poor condition of roads infrastructure. The study must be done to explore each social, cultural, economic and school based factors influencing the girl student's dropout rate categorically. Research can be expanded to the other districts of Pakistan. In spite this research should be done to find out the reasons of dropout of students of both genders at primary, secondary and Higher secondary level.
Khoso,, K. (2017). Study of the causes of dropout of female students from primary education at district Jamshoro (Unpublished graduate research project). Institute of Business Administration, Pakistan. Retrieved from https://ir.iba.edu.pk/research-projects-emba/189
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