Content MathML(CMML) conversion using LATEX Math Grammar (LMG)


Department of Computer Science

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Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Author Affiliation

  • Sharaf Hussain is Labs Administrator at Institute of Business Administration, Karachi
  • Samita Bai is PhD Scholar at Institute of Institute of Business Administration, Karachi
  • Shakeel Ahmed Khoja is Professor at Institute of Business Administration, Karachi

Conference Name

2019 7th International Conference on Smart Computing & Communications (ICSCC)

Conference Location

Sarawak, Malaysia

Conference Dates

28-30 June 2019


85073219569 (Scopus)


Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Abstract / Description

Syntax Tree (AST) is one of the main requirements to extract semantic information from a mathematical expression given in LATEX format and to make it machine readable for its interoperability in heterogeneous environments. In this paper, a grammar-based algorithm is proposed that converts LATEX math expression into Content MathML (CMML) to produce semantic enrichment in web documents. Initially, the conversion algorithm is tested on 20 equations used in NTCIR-12 math competition, later the algorithm is tested on NTCIR-12 Wikipedia-MathIR data-set. The results show that our algorithm is capable of converting LATEX complex equations into CMML extensively as compared to the existing ones.

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