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Abstract / Description

The project has focused on the material and discursive drivers of gender roles and their relevance to configuring violent geographies specifically among 12 urban working class neighborhoods of Karachi and Rawalpindi-Islamabad. This project has investigated how frustrated gendered expectations may be complicit in driving different types of violence and how they may be tackled by addressing first, the material aspects of gender roles through improved access to public services and opportunities, and second, discursive aspects of gender roles in terms of public education and media. This report's findings are based upon approximately two thousand four hundred questionnaire surveys, close to sixty ethnographic style interviews, participant observations, participatory photographic surveys, media monitoring, secondary literature review and some key informant interviews. The findings overwhelmingly point towards access to services and vulnerability profiles of households as major drivers of violence, as they intersect with discourses surrounding masculinities, femininities and sexualities. The core discussions and analysis in this final report are anchored in the following four themes: vulnerabilities, mobilities, access to services, and violence. This was a multi-method research project and each of the methods was chosen to address specific types of data relevant to the specific research questions.

Table of Contents

  1. Background and Introduction to Project
  2. Methodology, Sampling and Context
  3. Institutional Governance, Urban Policy Environment
  4. Vulnerability, Gender, and Violence
  5. Gender, Mobility, Violence
  6. Access to Services & Violence
  7. Gender & Everyday Violence in an Urban Context
  8. Conclusion: Some Reflections and Recommendations

Publication Date


Faculty / School

Faculty of Business Administration (FBA)


Department of Social Sciences & Liberal Arts

Was this content written or created while at IBA?


Author Affiliation

  • Dr. Nausheen Anwar is Associate Professor, City and Regional Planing in Department of Social Sciences& Liberal Arts at the Institute of Business Administration (IBA), Karachi.
  • Dr. Danish Mustafa is a Reader, Department of Geography, King's College, London.
  • Dr. Amiera Sawas is a Post-Doctoral Research Associate in Climate Change and Security at the Grantham Institute, Imperial College London.
  • Ms. Sharmeen Malik has a MSc. in Applied Environmental Economics from SOAS University of London.

Gender and violence in urban Pakistan