Role of information and communication technologies on the war against terrorism and on the development of tourism: evidence from a panel of 28 countries

Author Affiliation

Abdullah Zafar Sheikh is Associate Professor at Institute of Business Administration (IBA), Karachi

Faculty / School

Faculty of Business Administration (FBA)


Department of Management

Was this content written or created while at IBA?


Document Type


Source Publication

Technology in Society




Accounting | Business | Education | Political Science | Social and Behavioral Sciences | Sociology


This study aims to examine the dynamic relationships among information and communication technologies (ICTs), international tourism, and terrorism in 28 countries from 1998 to 2016. Three weighted indices were constructed to gather the following factors: i) “war against terrorism” by military factors, ii) ICTs by different communication technologies, and iii) tourism demand by tourism factors. Results confirmed that the potential determinants of the war against terrorism include computer and communication services, secure Internet servers, per capita income, and trade openness. The key factors of ICT development are armed forces personnel, arms imports, military expenditures, per capita income, and trade openness, which can be effectively utilized for the war on terrorism across countries. Per capita income, trade, foreign direct investment inflows, and military expenditures substantially increased inbound tourism, whereas tourism demand increased computer and communication services, Internet users, and trade openness. Results also showed that armed forces personnel, arms imports, and growth-specific factors substantially increased tourism receipts, whereas high military expenditures decreased tourism income. These findings offer useful policy implications. One key conclusion drawn from this study is that ICTs play a potentially vital role in supporting the war against terrorism and the development of tourism across countries.

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HJRS - W Category, Scopus, Web of Science - Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)

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Impact Factor: 4.192

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